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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is a city in the Far East of Russia numbering 192 780 inhabitants for 2015. It is an administrative center of Sakhalin Region and sixth largest city of the Far East. The distance between Moscow and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is 9400 km by land and 6700 by air.

The city is located in the southeast of Sakhalin Island on the Susuya riverside, about 50 km from the Sea of Okhotsk on the west, 25 km from the eastern shore and 20 km from the Anivsky Bay washing the Island in the south.

The city lies on the plain surrounded by hills from the east. Thanks to this fact climate here is different from that on the shore. It may be very hot in summer and very cold in winter without wind.

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is given the same status as have regions of the Extreme North.

The city is situated in a seismically dangerous region, there is a strong possibility of severe earth quakes. Construction currently is carried on with the use of special technologies allowing buildings to stand up to 8 earthquake magnitudes on MSK-64 seismic scale.

Time zone for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and the whole Sakhalin Island is the same as for Vladivostok. A shift relative to UTC is +10:00 after October 26, 2014 (before it was +11:00). Relative to Moscow time this time zone has constant shift +7 hours denoted as MSK+7.